It is morally wrong to make a mother choose between treatment for herself and treatment for her newborn. It is morally wrong that people should be dying of AIDS when treatment is available.
It is morally wrong that babies are still being born with HIV when we know how to prevent it. It is morally wrong that children are still growing up as AIDS orphans.
To be a partner for women and girls against violence and injustice, you do not have to be experts on human rights or gender. You do have to be committed to always asking in your daily work: 'How can I better engage women and girls to understand what they need'
A society that cuts itself off from its youth severs its lifeline; it is condemned to bleed to death.
When the history of our times is written, will we be remembered as the generation that turned our backs in a moment of global crisis or will it be recorded that we did the right thing?
No disease group is as vast and complex in scope as the noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Incorporating social determinants such as income and education, the NCDs call for an equally massive and comprehensive response
There are 1.2 billion adolescents across the world, 9 out of 10 of these young people live in developing countries. Millions are denied their basic rights to quality education, health care, protection and exposed to abuse and exploitation.
Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane.
“The early years in a child’s life—when the human brain is forming—represent a critically important window of opportunity to develop a child’s full potential and shape key academic, social, and cognitive skills that determine a child’s success in school and in life.”—President Barack Obama
“If art is to nourish the roots of our culture, society must set the artist free to follow his vision wherever it takes him.”—President JF Kennedy
"The true character of a society is revealed in how it treats its children. History will judge us by the difference we make in the everyday lives of children."—President Nelson Mandela

Prevalence and Identification of Serum Markers Associated with Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B in Pregnant Women in Yaounde, Cameroon

Lucien Honore Etame Sone, PhD, Roger Ahouga Voufo, MSc, Henriette Thérèse Dimodi, PhD, Michel Kengne, PhD, Cédric Gueguim, MSc, Nnanga Ngah, PhD, Julius Oben, PhD, Judith Laure Ngondi, PhD

Abstract


Objective: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women and identify markers associated with vertical transmission of HBV.

Methods: Prospective and cross-sectional study over 10 months on 298 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Cité Verte and Efoulan District hospitals in Cameroon.A dry tube blood collection was performed on all pregnant women and babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Serum from the women was used to test for HBsAg through immunochromatography and then confirmed by ELISA.The test for HBeAg, HBeAb and HBcAb and dosage of transaminases were performed on the serum of HBsAg-positive women. Only HBsAg was tested in babies within 24 hours after birth.

Results: HBsAg was present in 23 (7.7%) mothers while 275 (92.3%) tested negative.Due to loss to followup, we assessed vertical transmission in 20 babies born to20 mothers. In all, eight babies tested HBsAgpositive; six mothers tested positive with HBeAg; 10 mothers with HBeAb and two were simultaneously infected with HBV and HIV.

Conclusion and Global Health Implications: HBeAg and increase in liver transaminases were serum markers associated with the vertical transmission of HBV while HBeAb and anti-HIV therapy were protective markers.There is need to systematically screen all pregnant women for hepatitis B, follow up those that are positive, and administer a dose of gammaglobulin anti-HBs to their children to reduce the risks of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (CHC) and curb mortality and morbidity due to viral hepatitis B.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus • Serum Markers • Vertical Transmission • Cell Hepatocellular Carcinoma • Cameroon

Copyright © 2017 Etame et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.174

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